- Central Superior Services (CSS) is also known as Bureaucracy. It is a permanent elite bureaucratic authority and the civil service that is responsible for running the civilian bureaucratic operations and government secretariats and directorates of the Cabinet of Pakistan.
- The bureaucracy consists of 12 directorates that provide vital office and secretariat related duties to the Government of Pakistan. After passing the CSS exams a candidate is allocated to different 12 groups according to his performance.
- The six CSS Compulsory papers are of 100 marks each having a time duration of three hours in all papers. All candidates must take all the compulsory papers.
- Comparative Study of Major Religions is for Non-Muslim Students.
Central Superior Services (CSS) is also known as Bureaucracy. It is a permanent elite bureaucratic authority and the civil service that is responsible for running the civilian bureaucratic operations and government secretariats and directorates of the Cabinet of Pakistan. The Prime Minister is the final authority on all matters regarding the civil service.
History of Civil Services
The civil service defined itself as “key wheels on which the entire engine of the state has to move.”The Civil Services Officers are responsible to run civil administration of the country. Derived from the colonial legacy of the former Indian Civil Service the civil service came into its modern formation immediately after the establishment of Pakistan as a “Civil Service of Pakistan”. During its time of formation, the bureaucracy produced Ghulam Ishaq Khan who would go on to become the President of Pakistan. It had an influence on many of the state’s defence, internal, foreign and financial policies. In 1971, it was re-organized and reestablished under “Chapter I: Part-XII, Article 240” of the Constitution of Pakistan which gave it foundation and constitutional status.
Collaboration of Civil Bureaucracy and Military Establishment
The civil bureaucracy closely collaborated with the military establishments of Pakistani Armed Forces in issues concerning the national security. Almost whole the issues regarding internal security are being discussed with Civil Bureaucracy. Because the CTD and other Special Branch Groups are also under the police services which is under the Bureaucracy. Interior Secretary, Secretary for Foreign Affairs and IGP also attend the National Security Meetings. Establishment and Bureaucracy play a vital and important role in security as well as in Civil Administration.
Directorates of Bureaucracy
The bureaucracy consists of 12 directorates that provide vital office and secretariat related duties to the Government of Pakistan. After passing the CSS exams a candidate is allocated to different 12 groups according to his performance. In the beginning, an officer serves in 17th scale. All the CSP officers worked directly under the Federal Government and indirectly under the Provincial Government as well. The provincial bureaucracies are headed by the respective Chief Secretaries. The post of Chief Secretary is the highest post of bureaucracy at the provincial level.
Every Province(Punjab, Sindh, KPK and Balochistan) have different Chief Secretaries which is appointed by the Chief Minister. The Inspector-General of Police is the highest rank in the Police Department. The highest attainable rank for an officer who serves in the country’s bureaucracy is BPS-22 grade.
The 12 different directorates of Bureaucracy are fallowing:
• Pakistan Administrative Service
• Foreign Service of Pakistan
• Pakistan Customs Service
• Police Service of Pakistan
• Inland Revenue Service
• Office Management Group
• Information Group
• Commerce and Trade Group
• Military Lands & Cantonments Group
• Railways (Commercial and Transportation) Group
• Postal Group
• Pakistan Audit and Accounts Service
Generally, the top and elite class bureaucrats are posted and allocated in PAS, FSP and PSP. These three branches are known as Elite Class Bureaucracy.
Pakistan Administrative Service (PAS)
The Pakistan Administrative Service, or PAS (previously known as the District Management Group or DMG before 1 June 2012,because mostly PAS officers were allocated in District administration before 2012.) is the most elite and prestigious cadre of the Civil Service of Pakistan. The Pakistan Administrative Service over the years has emerged as the most consolidated and developed civil institution, with the senior PAS officers of Grade 22 often seen as stronger than the federal government ministers. The service of PAS is very versatile in nature and officers are assigned to different departments all across Pakistan during the course of their careers. Almost all of the country’s highest-profile positions such as the federal secretaries, the provincial chief secretaries, and chairmen of top-heavy organizations like the National Highway Authority, Trading Corporation of Pakistan and State Life Insurance Corporation usually belong to the elite Pakistan Administrative Service.
Rabiya Javeri Agha is serving as the first female president of Pakistan Administrative Service. The officers of this group recruited by the CSS exams which are held by the Federal Public Service Commission(FPSC). Those selected for this group have to undergo a two-year training programme at the Civil Services Academy (CSA) in Lahore. Former President Mr.Ghulam Ishaq Khan is a notable PAS officer.
Foreign Service of Pakistan (FSP)
Foreign Service of Pakistan was formally created in October 1952, after having been an improvised organization since the creation and independence of Pakistan in 1947. After 1947, its recruitment and hiring of employees are done through the larger organization Civil Service of Pakistan. The Recruitment of Officers of FSP (Foreign Service of Pakistan) is also through the competitive examination conducted annually by the Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC) of Pakistan. Foreign Service of Pakistan(FSP) is among the top three groups along with Pakistan Administrative Service(PAS) and Police Service of Pakistan. (PSP). Officers of the Foreign Service of Pakistan undergo common training at the Civil Services Academy, Lahore and later are given six months specialized training at the Foreign Service Academy, Islamabad. Foreign Services of Pakistan also run Ministry of Foreign Affairs as well as the Embassies, High Commissions and Consulates of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in different countries of the world.
After the initial training period, junior officers posted to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamabad and serve as Assistant Directors in the political, administrative or protocol wings. Junior officers begin their diplomatic careers abroad as either Third Secretary or Vice Consuls. They continue to grow in their ranks at the headquarters as well as at Missions abroad as follows Headquarters.
- Assistant Director (BPS-17)
- Deputy Director (BPS-18)
- Director (BPS-19)
- Director General (BPS-20)
- Additional Secretary (BPS-21)
- Special Secretary (BPS-22)
- Foreign Secretary (BPS-22) Head of the Foreign Service of Pakistan.
Many of FSP officers posted into different Councils of United Nations as the Representatives of Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Notable Women Diplomats
- Begum Rana Liaquat Ali Khan (Ambassador to the Netherlands) ( 1954 – 1961)
- Hina Rabbani Khar (Served as the top diplomat in Foreign Service of Pakistan, Foreign Minister of Pakistan (2011 – 2013)
- Sherry Rehman (Ambassador to the United States (2011 – 2013)
- Maleeha Lodhi (Ambassador to the United Nations (2015 – 2019)
Police Services of Pakistan (PSP)
Police is basically is a law enforcement department in every country.
In Pakistan, law enforcement is jointly carried out by the federal and provincial police services and other law enforcement agencies who form a chain leading from the investigation. The law enforcement agencies are also involved in providing first response to emergencies and other threats to public safety as well as protecting the infrastructure , and maintaining order in the country. All the provinces have their own Police Service. The highest rank in police service is IGP. IG of Police is appointed by both Provincial and Federal Governments. After passing CSS exams an officer who wants to join police is allocated as ASP in 17th scale. At Federal level, these officers are also posted to other law enforcement agencies.
Law Enforcement Agencies
- Federal Investigation Agency (FIA)
- Federal Board of Revenue (FBR)
- Anti-Narcotics Force (ANF)
- National Counter Terrorism Authority (NCTA)
- National Highway and Motorway Police
- Railways Police
Importance of other Departments
Other departments of bureaucracy have notable and significant importance but these above groups also known as the top and elite class bureaucracy. Other groups such as IT group, Military Lands and Cantonments Board, Postal group has their own importance with respect to their fields.
CSS COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION Total Papers: 12Compulsory Papers: 6 (All candidates have to take the 6 compulsory papers)Optional Papers: 6 (Candidates shall choose 6 out of various given choices)
CSS exams conducted by FPSC only one time in a year.
CSS COMPULSORY SUBJECTS (600 MARKS)
The six CSS Compulsory papers are of 100 marks each having a time duration of three hours in all papers. All candidates must take all the compulsory papers.
CSS COMPULSORY SUBJECTS
- English (Precis & Composition)
- General Science & Ability
- Current Affairs
- Pakistan Affairs
- Islamiat / Comparative Study of Major Religions
Comparative Study of Major Religions is for Non Muslim Students.
CSS OPTIONAL SUBJECTS (600 MARKS)The candidates are required to select optional subjects carrying a total of 600 marks. In optional Subjects, some are of 200 marks and most of 100 marks. If you choose the subject of 200 marks then you will give 2 papers of the respected subject.
Important Note: The subjects of 100 marks have 1 paper while the subject of 200 marks has 2 papers.
The papers of regional languages will be attempted in the same language.
All the compulsory subjects and optional subjects contain 20 MCQs except for Pure Mathematics and Applied Mathematics.
Passing marks for compulsory subjects are 40 and for optional is 33.
Groups of Optional Subjects
|2.||Accounting & Auditing||200|
|2.||Governance & Public Policies||100|
|3.||Town Planning & Urban Management||100|
|1.||Agriculture & Forestry||100|
|11.||Journalism & Mass Communication||100|
|2.||History of Pakistan & India||100|
|4.||Islamic History & Culture||100|
|5.||History of the USA||100|
|5.||Muslim & Jurisprudence||100|
Prepared By: Syed Faheem Raza